Introducing PSE
We are the only electricity transmission system operator in Poland. We manage the transmission network that feeds the distribution network, through which electricity reaches homes, businesses and institutions all over the country.

As a company that cares about the reliability of electricity supply to all regions of the country, we have a real impact on the development of Polish economy and businesses. We also ensure safe and economic operation of the National Power System as a part of the common European system.

PSE as a transmission system operator

Electricity transmission systems are territorially extensive and technically complex process systems managed by transmission system operators.

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We provide services in the scope of transmission of electricity and the provision of the power system, while maintaining the required criteria for the safe operation of the National Power System ( NPS ). As the electric power transmission system operator ( TSO ) our company is expected to take effective actions to ensure the required quality and security of electricity supply and economic operation of the system. The operator's actions are directly dictated by the technical development of the electric power transmission systems and the legal regulations concerning the power sector. Consequently, we are an enterprise of considerable importance to the public order and safety, and of particular significance to the Polish economy. PSE is also a member of the European association of operators ( ENTSO-E ).
PSE is the only electric power transmission system operator (TSO) in Poland, as according to the Energy Law one TSO is appointed for the territory of the Republic of Poland.
Our company has been appointed by the President of the Energy Regulatory Office ( ERO ) to perform this function until December 31, 2030. The responsibilities of the TSO are described in the Energy Law of April 10, 1997.

Tasks of PSE as the transmission system operator

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The tasks carried out by PSE as the transmission system operator come down to four basic categories:
  1. Quality and ongoing security of electricity supply.
  2. Sufficiency of the national transmission network.
  3. Operation of the national central commercial balancing mechanism.
  4. International cooperation as part of interconnected electricity systems and a single European electricity market.

Tasks in the scope of ongoing security of supplies

Legal regulations applicable to the transmission system operator define the technical standards for the operation of the transmission system and the technical resources that the operator should have at their disposal to meet the requirements in this regard. Tasks performed by PSE in this area:
Balancing (of the electricity generation against the actual demand)
Balancing applies to both very short periods (measured in seconds) and very long periods (expressed in hours), and is carried out through the use of power reserves maintained specifically for this purpose. The TSO is required to maintain specific amounts of reserves measured in seconds, minutes and hours. The first two forms of the reserves are obtained by concluding appropriate contracts with generating entities for the so-called system control services – this action is preceded by a tender procedure. The source of the hourly reserve is the balancing market (commercial offers). The activation of reserves takes place automatically or remotely (depending on the type and location) from the central power control system, based on a command given by telephone or using a different method that has been agreed upon.
Ensuring compliance with the network operation security criteria
As the TSO, we are obligated to plan the operation of the network and the distribution of generation at its individual nodes in such a way so that a critical disturbance does not cause a system failure and limitation of electricity supply to consumers. To this end, we develop coordination plans with time horizons ranging from three years to a single day. The plans include both maintenance schedules for network elements and overhaul schedules for generating units. As part of the planning process, we identify constraints on the operation of generating units at the individual network nodes. We manage these constraints by using the balancing market mechanism or by entering into appropriate agreements with generating entities.
Application of preventive and restorative automatic control systems, and development of NPS defense and restoration plans
The TSO also prepares measures to prevent the occurrence of conditions that threaten the stability of the NPS operation, including in particular the propagation of failures in the transmission system. For this purpose, we use various types of system-related automatic controls that enable quick changes in the network operation or production level of generating units, plans for shutting down consumers or limiting supply and consumption of electricity, e.g. based on power supply levels transmitted through radio communication. In the event of a transmission system failure, we have restoration scenarios in place, even anticipating the need to restore the entire national system. To enable these scenarios, the system operator contracts generating entities capable of starting up without external power supply (system service).

Tasks regarding the adequacy (sufficiency) of the national transmission network

As a TSO, we are responsible for the expansion and maintenance of the national transmission network and its interconnection with the systems of the neighboring countries. To ensure network sufficiency, our company performs the following tasks:
  • Transmission network expansion planning, taking into account the anticipated changes in the size and geographic distribution of the domestic demand, locations of new generating sources, and network expansion plans of the neighboring country operators and distribution system operators.
  • Maintaining network equipment condition to ensure high availability.

Tasks in the scope of operation of the national central commercial balancing mechanism

The specific nature of electricity as a product requires the existence of a central balancing mechanism and an entity responsible for the balancing. The balancing mechanism is to provide real-time commercial balancing of electricity market participants, and settlement of electricity used for balancing. In Poland, this role is fulfilled by the balancing market mechanism in which the current balancing of electricity market participants is carried out based on offers submitted by entities actively participating in the market. The balancing market mechanism very much affects other segments of the electricity market, as well as decisions on how to use generating resources.
The rules of the balancing market should ensure:
  • equal treatment of all participants,
  • transparency of settlement price determination process,/li>
  • the possibility of consumer participation (consumption reduction offers),
  • creating price signals that promote efficiency of operation of the entire sector.

Tasks in the scope of international cooperation

We are a member of ENTSO-E (the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity). ENTSO-E ENTSO-E consists of 42 transmission system operators from 35 countries in Europe.
Figure: ENTSO-E member states
The mission of ENTSO-E is to promote reliable operation, optimum management and sustainable development of the pan-European electricity transmission system to ensure security of supplies, and to meet the needs of the internal electricity market.

In-house indicator
Almost 100 representatives of PSE are involved in the work of ENTSO-E, and actively participate in all important tasks at various levels of the organization.
Our employees are involved, among others, in the process of preparation and implementation of European network codes functioning as regulations and guidelines of the European Commission. Network codes and guidelines are regulatory tools for the implementation of a single EU electricity market – they contain common rules for the operation and management of power systems, and are designed to eliminate technical barriers to further market integration.
Network codes are legislative acts. As EU regulations, they are effective as part of the legal order immediately upon their entry into force. This involves a number of responsibilities. First and foremost, the member states need to align existing regulations with the standards derived from the network codes. Our company actively participates in this work. Moreover, the TSO is obligated to adapt any regulations enabling the fulfillment of the TSO's tasks (e.g. Transmission Network Code) to the provisions of the network codes.
The network codes leave the possibility for member states to regulate certain areas covered by the scope of the codes as part of the national power systems, synchronous areas or transmission capacity designation regions in order to take into account the specificities of the national power system or a transmission capacity designation area or region. For this reason, international cooperation between operators from a given area or region is necessary to develop the so-called TCMs (Terms, Conditions and Methodologies). These are documents prepared by the TSOs from the transmission capacity designation areas or regions. Our company actively participates in this work. The documents prepared are approved by the regulators from the respective transmission capacity designation areas or regions. In Poland, the regulator is the President of the Energy Regulatory Office. The documents are also approved by the Agency for Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER).

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